Changing Woman is a Navajo deity who embodies all of the ideals of a Navajo woman.
The girl partaking in the ceremony is molded by her mentor, the Ideal Woman, who is chosen by the family and represents the qualities of Changing Woman and an ideal Navajo woman. Ideal woman molds the initiate so that she can represent Changing Woman and all of her ideal qualities. The initiate must run two to three times a day for each day of the ceremony to prepare her for a challenging life and to make her stronger.
Both the hair washing and jewelry washing constitute as purification procedures.
The initiate is painted with white clay, or ashes from the bark of an Aspen tree, by Ideal Woman so her height can be increased and she can have minimal signs of aging. One of the most important tasks during the Kinaalda ceremony is the making of the corn cake, which represents Changing Woman, fertility, and life. The Enemy Way ceremony involves song, sandpainting , dance, and the powerful mythical figure Monster Slayer. Associated with the Enemy Way is a Girl's Dance, to which young men are invited by marriageable young women.
If Long Arrow saw them, the old man would grant his request. The old man was the master of the Elk Dogs. Long Arrow asked for three things: the black robe that prevented horses from running away, a rainbow-colored quilled belt that carried Elk Dog dance songs and prayers, and a herd of the animals. The old man granted the requests and also gave Long Arrow a magic rope to catch the Elk Dog.
And so the Blackfoot have been horse-people ever since.
What you said to me I will remember. I wanted to go home with you.
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Navajo Social Dance Song This is a Skip Dance song and though social in function, it must not be dissociated from its role in the very serious Evil-way rite. The introduction of text lines in English in alternation with a refrain of traditional Navajo vocables is a source of fun amusement.
Songs of this type have been popular with the Plains tribes for some time and may have furnished a model to the Navajo. Despite the English words, the song is thoroughly Navajo in its melodic style as it follows a descending triad pattern, E flat, B flat, G, G flat, E flat. In the refrain the G is used, whereas in the text line the G is sung a half step lower and is done consistently, evidently by intention, not by chance. This is another example of the pleasure and amusement that the Navajo find in their social music. The Navajo were especially effective in the communication of orders and information in their language, which the enemy were unable to decode.
The text follows as translated by Teddy Draper. Iwo Jima is the place where our soldiers were almost captured. Surbachi is were our soldiers planted the flag. Our flag, red, white, and blue with its stripes and stars On Iwo Jima our flag is still waving. Navajo Peyote Song The Peyote cult is a synecretic religion that combines native Indian beliefs and practices with Christian symbolism.
NAVAJO CEREMONIAL SONGS
The cult had its origin in Mexico and by the eighteenth century had crossed the Rio Grande. It has passed from tribe to tribe and has become an intertribal religion. In Oklahoma the Peyote organizations were united under a charter and certificate of incorporation granted "The Native American Church" at Oklahoma City under the signature and seal of the secretary of state, dated October 10, The Peyote ceremony, centering around prayer, singing, and the eating of the peyote, a small, fleshy cactus with hallucinogenic properties, is an interesting combination of natavistic and Christian beliefs and practices.
In the all-night meetings, which are held in a special tipi, the singing of Peyote songs constitutes an important part of the ritual. Ceremonial paraphernalia, consisting of a staff, a small gourd rattle, and a water drum, specially wrapped and tied for each meeting, are passed clockwise around the circle of participants. Each person is expected to sing four songs, and each song consists of four repeats. The singer holds the staff in his left hand and accompanies himself with the rattle in his right had, while the person to his right provides an accompaniment on the drum. Peyote songs are always sung by individuals, never in chorus, and with a mild vocal technique which distinguishes the Peyote musical style.
At four stated intervals during the ceremony, the leader sings special songs which are always sung at these points in the ritual. Since Peyote songs, particularly the four special songs, are passed on from one tribe to another as an integral part of the ceremony, it is not surprising that they manifest a unity and distinctness of style that sets them apart from other tribal music. In describing the style of Peyote songs, McAllester notes that they are " 1 sung with a relatively 'mild' vocal technique; 2 they are fast; 3 the accompaniment is in eighth-note units running even with the voice and adding to the impression of speed; 4 they are uniquely consistent in the use of only eighth and quarter-note values in the vocal melody; 5 they have the usual Plains phrase patterns but in addition show a significant incidence of paired patterns, restricted compass and unusually long and flat codas; 6 the finals show a cumulative use of the typical peyote song, as diagnostic as the Christian 'amen,' comes the phrase 'he ne ne ya wa.
David P. Despite the opposition, which at one time declared Peyote ceremonies illegal on the reservation, this religion is now widely accepted and claims some twenty-thousand members among the Navajo. Professor McAllester questions its designation, thinking it could be from the Flintway. He writes, "My guess is that this is a variation of one of the songs of the Hard Flint Boys from enemy Way, such as are reported in Fr. Those songs are a more elaborate way of showing the singer dressed in flints of all kinds.
Neye, dark flint being my moccasins, Around me I hear things, Dark flint being my leggings, Around me I hear things, Dark flint being my clothes, around me I hear things Dark flint being my face, around me I hear things, Dark fling being my voice, around me I hear things, Dark fling being [? The Circle Dance is a social dance in which couples proceed with a shuffling step clockwise around a circle. Navajo Spinning Dance Song The Spinning Dance is one in which the man stands still and the woman dances around him and then reverses the direction.
The two Spinning Dance songs are modern songs in the traditional style. At a place called Defiance There is a woman who is well mannered But her daughter has made me to wander Far from my girl at home. Navajo Squaw Dance Song The Squaw Dance represents the social and secular part of the Enemy Way, a ceremony that has as its purpose laying to rest the ghost of an outsider, that of a non-Navajo person. During the nights of the three-day ceremony, the guests of the family who sponsor the ceremony enjoy dancing and singing.
The Squaw Dance provides an opportunity for young people to meet. It is the custom for girls to choose their partners and for the man to give money to the girl. The couples dance with a shuffling step clockwise around a circle. The music is provided by a group of men who divide into two groups facing each other and take turns in the singing. A strong element of competition soon appears.
Most of the songs are without meaningful texts. A signal song calls for an end of the dancing, and the remainder of the night is spent in singing sway songs. Play song. The Night Chant, popularly known as the Yeibichai, Grandfather of the Gods, is an important nine-day ceremony that is celebrated only in the winter when there is no thunder and the rattlesnakes are hibernating. The Blessingway has been described by Dr. The text, freely translated, follows:.
He na, I shall be Flint Boy, before me it is beautiful I shall be Flint Boy, before me it is beautiful, holaghane, I shall be Flint Boy, behind me it is beautiful, I shall be Flint Boy, behind me it is beautiful, holaghane, I shall be Flint Boy, below me it is beautiful, I shall be Flint Boy, below me it is beautiful, holaghane, I shall be Flint Boy, above me it is beautiful, I shall be Flint Boy, above me it is beautiful, holaghane, I shall be Flint Boy, all around me it is beautiful, I shall be Flint Boy, all around me it is beautiful, holaghane.
A free translation of the "Chant for Success in Racing" follows:.
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With these I am starting off, With these I am starting off, The great male hawk Prairie Hawk , his legs, with these I am starting off, Truly with male legs, with these I am starting off, One dawn cloud, on top of it, with these I am starting off, With these I am starting off, With these I am starting off, The great female hawk, her legs, with these I am starting off, Truly with female legs, with these I am starting off, The dawn clouds, on top of them, with these I am starting off, With these I am starting off, With these I am starting off, The great male snake, his legs, with these I am starting off, Three dawn clouds, on top of them, with these I am starting off, With these I am starting off, With these I am starting off, The great female snake, her legs, with these I am starting off, Truly with female legs, with these I am starting off, Four dawn clouds, top of the, with these I am starting off.
The "Silversmith's Song" is one that Ambrose Roanhorse learned from his grandfather. Corn Grinding Songs, once a widespread genre that accompanied the laborious work of grinding corn on a stone metate, have become obsolete in function, although cultural and historical interest in them continues. Sizeedi - is cousin, or sweetheart. Game songs provide social entertainment and accompaniment to guessing games that are variously described as moccasin game, shoe game, hand game, and stick game.
The turkey is your pet. In most Indian societies the making of music is the prerogative of the men, but this does not prevent the women from singing along with the men in social songs.
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The "Tuning Up Song" is aptly described by the title. This is a Skip Dance song and though social in function, it must not be dissociated from its role in the very serious Evil-way rite. In the Second World War young Indian men and women from many tribes enlisted in the armed forces and served the nation well.
The Peyote cult is a synecretic religion that combines native Indian beliefs and practices with Christian symbolism. This song may be mislabeled. Professor McAllester has kindly made the following translation from the record. The simple beauty of the Circle Dance songs are enhanced by the lovely mezzo voice of Julia Deal, who was a teenage girl when the songs were recorded in The Spinning Dance is one in which the man stands still and the woman dances around him and then reverses the direction.